AskDefine | Define pulse

Dictionary Definition

pulse

Noun

1 (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients); "the pulsations seemed to be coming from a star" [syn: pulsation, pulsing, impulse]
2 the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart; "he could feel the beat of her heart" [syn: pulsation, heartbeat, beat]
3 the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health [syn: pulse rate, heart rate]
4 edible seeds of various pod-bearing plants (peas or beans or lentils etc.)

Verb

1 expand and contract rhythmically; beat rhythmically; "The baby's heart was pulsating again after the surgeon massaged it" [syn: pulsate, throb]
2 produce or modulate (as electromagnetic waves) in the form of short bursts or pulses or cause an apparatus to produce pulses; "pulse waves"; "a transmitter pulsed by an electronic tube" [syn: pulsate]
3 drive by or as if by pulsation; "A soft breeze pulsed the air"

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

pulsus, “beat”, from pellere, “to drive”

Noun

  1. Any annual legume yielding from 1 to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod, and used as food for humans or animals.
  2. A normally regular beat felt when arteries are depressed, caused by the pumping action of the heart.
  3. A beat, throb.
  4. A periodically recurring short stimulus, perceived as points in time. (DeLone et. al. (Eds.), 1975, chap. 3) Often the stimuli are defined as identical (Cooper & Meyer, 1960).

Related terms

Translations

regular beat caused by the heart
a beat, throb
in music

References

  • DeLone et. al. (Eds.) (1975). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0130493465.

Extensive Definition

In medicine, a person's pulse is the throbbing of their arteries as an effect of the heart beat. It can be felt in any place that allows for an artery to be compressed against a bone, such as at the neck (carotid artery), at the wrist (radial artery), behind the knee (popliteal artery), on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery), and near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery). The pulse rate can also be measured by measuring the heart beats directly (the apical pulse).
Pressure waves move the artery walls, which are pliable; these waves are not caused by the forward movement of the blood. When the heart contracts, blood is ejected into the aorta and the aorta stretches. At this point, the wave of distention (pulse wave) is pronounced but relatively slow-moving (3–6 m/s). As it travels towards the peripheral blood vessels, it gradually diminishes and becomes faster. In the large arterial branches, its velocity is 7–10 m/s; in the small arteries, it is 15–35 m/s. The pressure pulse is transmitted fifteen or more times more rapidly than the blood flow.
Pulse is also used, although incorrectly, to denote the frequency of the heart beat, usually measured in beats per minute. In most people, the pulse is an accurate measure of heart rate. Under certain circumstances, including arrhythmias, some of the heart beats are ineffective, and the aorta is not stretched enough to create a palpable pressure wave. The pulse is too irregular and the heart rate can be (much) higher than the pulse rate. In this case, the heart rate should be determined by auscultation of the heart apex, in which case it is not the pulse. The pulse deficit (difference between heart beats and pulsations at the periphery) should be determined by simultaneous palpation at the radial artery and auscultation at the heart apex.
A normal pulse rate for a healthy adult, while resting, can range from 60 to 100 beats per minute (BPM), although well conditioned athletes may have a healthy pulse rate lower than 60 BPM. Bradycardia occurs when the pulse rate is below 60 per minute, whereas tachycardia occurs when the rate is above 100 BPM. During sleep, this can drop to as low as 40 BPM; during strenuous exercise, it can rise as high as 150–200 BPM. Generally, pulse rates are higher in infants and young children. The resting heart rate for an infant is usually close to an adult's pulse rate during strenuous exercise (average 110 BPM for an infant).

Common pulse sites

  • Apical pulse: located in the 4th or 5th left intercostal space, just to the left of the sternum. In contrast with other pulse sites, the apical pulse site is unilateral, and measured not over an artery, but over the heart itself (more specifically, the apex of the heart).
  • Brachial pulse: located between the biceps and triceps, on the medial side of the elbow cavity, frequently used in place of carotid pulse in infants (brachial artery)
  • Carotid pulse: located in the neck (carotid artery). The carotid artery should be palpated gently and while the patient is sitting or lying down. Stimulating its baroreceptors with vigorous palpitation can provoke severe bradycardia or even stop the heart in some sensitive persons. Also, a person's two carotid arteries should not be palpated at the same time. Doing so may limit the flow of blood to the head, possibly leading to fainting or brain ischemia. It can be felt between the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, above the hyoid bone and lateral to the thyroid cartilage.
  • Dorsalis pedis pulse: located on top of the foot (dorsalis pedis artery).
  • Facial pulse: located on the mandible (lower jawbone) on a line with the corners of the mouth (facial artery).
  • Femoral pulse: located in the thigh, halfway between the pubic symphysis and anterior superior iliac spine (femoral artery).
  • Popliteal pulse: located behind the knee in the popliteal fossa, found by holding the bent knee. The patient bends the knee at approximately 120°, and the physician holds it in both hands to find the popliteal artery in the pit behind the knee.
  • Radial pulse: located on the thumb side of the wrist (radial artery). It can also be found in the anatomical snuff box.
  • Temporal pulse: located on the temple directly in front of the ear (superficial temporal artery).
  • Tibialis posterior pulse: located on the medial side of the ankle (facing inwards) behind the medial malleolus (posterior tibial artery).
  • Ulnar pulse: located on the little finger side of the wrist(ulnar artery).
The ease of palpability of a pulse is dictated by the patient's blood pressure. If his or her systolic blood pressure is below 90 mmHg, the radial pulse will not be palpable. Below 80 mmHg, the brachial pulse will not be palpable. Below 60 mmHg, the carotid pulse will not be palpable. Since systolic blood pressure rarely drops that low, the lack of a carotid pulse usually indicates death. It is not unheard of, however, for patients with certain injuries, illnesses or other medical problems to be conscious and aware with no palpable pulse.

Reading a pulse

Pulses are manually palpated with fingers. When palpating the carotid artery, the femoral artery or the brachial artery, the thumb may be used. However, the thumb has its own pulse which can interfere with detecting the patient's pulse at other points, where two or three fingers should be used. Fingers or the thumb must be placed near an artery and pressed gently against a firm structure, usually a bone, in order to feel the pulse.
Make sure the person is calm and has been resting for 5 minutes before reading the pulse. Put the fingers on index and middle finger over the pulse count, and count for 30 seconds, and afterwards multiply by 2, to get the pulse rate. If the person's pulse rate is irregular, count for a full minute, and do not multiply. Averaging multiple readings may give a more representative figure.
Cheap home blood pressure measurement devices also typically give a pulse reading.

References

  • Jarvis, Caroylin (2003). Physical Examination & Health Assessment. Saunders.
pulse in Danish: Puls
pulse in German: Puls
pulse in French: Rythme cardiaque
pulse in Dutch: Polsslag
pulse in Polish: tętno
pulse in Portuguese: Pulsação arterial
pulse in Russian: Пульс
pulse in Swedish: Puls
pulse in Chinese: 脈搏
pulse in Hebrew: דופק

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

algae, alternate, arrhythmia, arsis, autophyte, bar beat, be here again, bean, beat, beating, bicker, bout, bracken, brown algae, circle, circuit, climber, come again, come and go, come around, come round, come round again, come up again, conferva, confervoid, course, creeper, cycle, dance, diastole, diatom, downbeat, drum, drumming, echo pulse, fern, flap, flick, flicker, flip, flit, flitter, flop, flutter, fruits and vegetables, fucus, fungus, go pitapat, grapevine, green algae, gulfweed, gutter, hammering, heartbeat, heartthrob, herb, heterophyte, intermit, ivy, kelp, legume, lentil, liana, lichen, liverwort, mold, moss, mushroom, offbeat, oscillate, palpitate, palpitating, palpitation, pant, parasite, parasitic plant, pea, perthophyte, phytoplankton, pitapat, pitter-patter, planktonic algae, plant families, pounding, puffball, pulsate, pulsating, pulsation, pulsing, rat-a-tat, rataplan, reappear, recur, red algae, reoccur, repeat, resonate, return, reverberating, reverberation, revolution, revolve, rhythm, rockweed, roll around, rotate, rotation, round, rust, saprophyte, sargasso, sargassum, sea lentil, sea moss, sea wrack, seaweed, series, slat, smut, spell, splutter, sputter, staccato, succulent, systole, tempo, thesis, throb, throbbing, thrumming, thumping, tick, ticktock, toadstool, trigger pulse, turn, undulate, upbeat, vetch, vibrate, vibrating, vibration, vine, wave, waver, wheel, wheel around, wort, wrack
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